blog post 2 | non-photorealism

1. Introduction:

Non photorealistic rendering (NPR) is a well tested area as it has its origins in the field of art history and practice. What is new however are NPR computer rendering techniques to make new types of images. This post will explore NPR history as well as the uses of NPR to create new useful types of images in cartography, archaeology, science and medicine and the search for the creation of new meaning and knowledge.

NPR, as an area of research, began in the early 1990’s. Computer graphics research was being published in journals by interest groups in fields such as electrical engineering and computer graphics. The Special Interest Group for Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH) conference began sessions on research in NPR around this time, followed by the first fully dedicated symposium in 2000 (Strothotte and Schlechtweg, xvii).

2. Non-photos and Non-realism:

In the present day, every ‘style’ of visual representation is at a person’s disposal. NPR is often a style chosen; not because photorealism isn’t accurate but because in some specific cases, which will be discussed in this blog post, photorealism might not be as useful as NPR. Photorealistic images could be described as ‘complete’ and can fail to convey information as clearly as an NPR image(Strothotte and Schlechtweg, 6).
When realism is no longer a goal, other compositional, representational and symbolic factors can come into focus. In Egyptian art, what is depicted does not represent what we could see with our eyes, the human figure is distorted (face and legs are in profile whilst the torso is full frontal). At the same time the borders of these images are filled with hieroglyphs and sometimes animals from nature; represented almost photo realistically and anatomically correct (Fig.1). The purpose of these images isn’t one of accurate representation, instead its aim could be seen as one of high spiritualism through the choice of symbolism and abstraction. Similarly, Picasso’s “Guernica” can be interpreted to have a similar goal, it is said that it acts as a magnifier of emotion and for some, it acts as a symbol representing the whole of the Spanish Civil War (Fig.2).


Fig. 1 - “Nebamun hunting in the marshes”, fragment from tomb of Nebamun,Thebes, Egypt. circa 1350 B.C. Source: https://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/n/nebamun_hunting_in_the_marshes.aspx

“Nebamun hunting in the marshes”, fragment from tomb of Nebamun,Thebes, Egypt. circa 1350 B.C. Source: https://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/n/nebamun_hunting_in_the_marshes.aspx


Fig. 2 - “Guernica” by Pablo Picasso.1937. 3.5m x 7.8m. Museo Renia Sofia, Madrid.   Source: http://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp

Fig. 2 – “Guernica” by Pablo Picasso.1937. 3.5m x 7.8m. Museo Renia Sofia, Madrid.
Source: http://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp

3. On Mapping:

Kenelley and Kimerling outline how NPR ‘looks at techniques designed to achieve other ends’ in their specialist field; terrain representation in cartography(35-51).
Acknowledging that even when a realistic map could be produced for the presentation of the topography of any landscape, some pre-computer NPR ‘renderings remain much revered and often cited.’
In their book, Strothotte and Schlechtweg describe the virtues of drawing by hand; “it is possible to free oneself from physical constraints of reality and to convey an impression rather than just to convey details of a scene’s appearance(4).’ According to Kenelley and Kimerling this would include cartographic generalization, the possible deformations of images and map projections (36).They also mention in particular physiographic diagrams (Fig.3a) as ‘unique stylised renderings’(51; Strothotte and Schlechtweg, 4 ). This (now computer generated)NPR style of illustration includes what could be familiar as the isometric tourist city map.Digital cartography is making efforts to blend what was great about hand drawn maps with digital rendering technology with the use of NPR techniques (Fig.3b).


Fig. 3 – “Physiographic Diagram of the Seven Devils Mountains” by Tau Rho Alpha and William A. Austin. 1982. Web 22 Oct 2015. Source: Google Images

Fig. 3a – “Hand Drawn Physiographic Diagram of the Seven Devils Mountains” by Tau Rho Alpha and William A. Austin. 1982. Source: Google Images


Fig. 3b – “Digital map with manual shading” by Eduard Imhof and Canton Grisons Web 23Oct 2015. Source: http://cartography.oregonstate.edu/TerrainShadingAndColoring.html

Fig. 3b – “Digital map with manual shading” by Eduard Imhof and Canton Grisons Web 23Oct 2015. Source: http://cartography.oregonstate.edu/TerrainShadingAndColoring.html

4. Science and Medicine:

Strothotte, Schlechtweg and Gooding also look at medical and scientific illustration as fields that benefit from using NPR (25; para 53). Gooding outlines how a ‘common feature of all scientific method is managing complexity‘ as ‘not everything is of equal importance all of the time’( para 47). Scientific illustrations are used as a tool to visualise and communicate single or multiple hypotheses at important intervals in the scientific process and therefore ‘illustrating in science is about illustrating process’ (para 53). Strothotte and Schlechtweg discuss how medical illustrations, show how it is sometimes necessary to change the appearance of the object represented to increase clarity. Certain medical illustration conventions apply: Veins are shown as red or blue, ligaments are white and muscles brown. Sometimes an exaggeration of scale is used to show detail of a particular area. ‘Sometimes an organ may be rotated somewhat relative to the other parts simultaneously to provide a better view on all objects in a single image and to be able to study several objects in the context of one another (15). (Fig.5) Whilst some details are highlighted others are left deliberately vague depending on the aim of the illustration. This method is often used for emphasis and clarity in illustrations used for industrial design, user manuals (Gooch and Gooch, 1) (Fig.6), architects sketches (as outlined in BP1) and in archaeological NPR also.


Fig. 5 - Example of a hand drawn medical illustration taken from a textbook on anatomy. Source: “Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics” by Strothotte + Schlectweg p25

Fig. 5 – Example of a hand drawn medical illustration taken from a textbook on anatomy. Source: “Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics” by Strothotte + Schlectweg p25


Fig. 6 - “Upper Threading”. Singer Sewing Machine Model 327K- Users Manual p12.  Source: A. Holland

Fig. 6 – “Upper Threading”. Singer Sewing Machine Model 327K- Users Manual p12.
Source: A. Holland

5. The Artists Impression:

The archaeological illustrator is sometimes described as the ‘first spectator within the environment of information’ on an archaeological site (Wollheim, 101-2 qtd. in Molyneaux, 1).
Even with the introduction of photography, the hand-drawn illustration of sites and finds has remained part of archaeological fieldwork(Fig.7). As for the creation of artistic impressions or photorealistic ‘reconstructions’ of how a site may have looked; the evidence for what every part of a site looked like might not exist (as illustrated by the multiple renderings of the Athenian gates in Eiteljorg’s article (5). Bateman suggests that trying to align our texts and images together is an impossible and false goal (5). A single photorealistic image may look “believable” and still be unable to show the level of detail that exists in the accompanying texts (Bateman, 5; Roussou et al, 1). Roussou et al go further to say that the use of NPR’s might be preferable to photorealistic images ‘to underline the fact that we are not dealing with indisputable facts’(8). In their 2003 article, they outline how a ‘perception of realism’ could be achieved through Photorealism and or NPR with the addition of interactivity (abstract).
In reference to interactivity; Eric Champion is cited in Rahaman et al proposing that an end-users engagement with interactive cultural heritage depends only in part on graphic realism(3). Taking into account his experience in computer gaming theory, he is cited as suggesting that static graphic realism is more suited to non-interactive applications and therefore, in his opinion, not computer game environments (Ibid).


Fig.7 – Stipple drawing of an Acheulian flint handaxe in Andover Museum (1963.31).   Source: Google Images

Fig.7 – Stipple drawing of an Acheulian flint handaxe in Andover Museum (1963.31).
Source: Google Images.

6. Group Surveys:

Both Strothotte, Schlechtweg and Frankland conducted surveys on the uses of Photorealistic and NPR images (see BP1 for Frankland) (313; 26-27). In 1995, Strothotte and Schlechtweg surveyed 54 architects and architecture students on the uses of 3 types of NPR visualisations (sketch, 3D shaded and exact plot). As well as measuring their types of responses to these images they, like Frankland in 2012, also surveyed their group about which image was considered suitable for what purpose. In the 1995 survey 53% chose the NPR sketch image as a way to present a first draft and the exact plot (NPR) for the presentation of a final design.
Frankland’s survey group results seem similar to Strothotte and Schlechtweg’s architects in that they also chose images, in response to survey questions, to fit specific purposes.

7. 3D Laser Scanning:

Whether it could be defined as NPR imagery or not; the use of 3D laser scans taken on archaeological sites, to produce qualitatively rendered models, could possibly allow archaeologists and the public to learn more by recording every stage in the on-site archaeological process(Forte, 3). The overarching idea of being able to make archaeology ‘reversible’ is a very attractive one. The work Forte describes on site in Çatalhöyük is getting close to Strothotte and Schlechtweg’s goal of ‘adding value’ to 2D and 3D imagery through its experiments with interactivity(10)(Fig.8).


Fig. 8 – Enhancement of a medical image through edge detection and visualization. Source: “Non-photorealistic Computer Graphics” by Strothotte and Schlechtweg, 2002. p19

Fig. 8 – Enhancement of a medical image through edge detection and visualization.
Source: “Non-photorealistic Computer Graphics” by Strothotte and Schlechtweg, 2002. p19


Fig. 9 - Teleimmersive session with a Wii.  Source: Article, 3D Archaeology at Çatalhöyük, Turkey by Forte et al. on Academia.eu

Fig. 9 – Teleimmersive session with a Wii: Showing Building 77, 3D model of GIS layers. 2011.
Source: Article, 3D Archaeology at Çatalhöyük, Turkey by Forte et al. on Academia.eu

8. Conclusion:

It remains to be seen if new NPR techniques such as the laser scans used in Çatalhöyük can allow archaeologists and the public to learn more by recording every stage in the archaeological on-site process (Fig. 9). The great strength of NPR is as a tool to communicate knowledge and convey information (Foley et al. cited in Strothotte and Schlechtweg, 308; Gooch and Gooch, 2). In Cartography, advances in NPR graphics of real world data are creating a blend of meaning making, accuracy and aesthetics. We have also seen how it can be used to record and visually illustrate process and uncertainty with architectural sketches, scientific illustrations and laser scans (Strothotte and Schlechtweg, 317-318). A photorealistic image can convey a vast array of information but a non-photrealistic is the ‘toolkit’ to communicate ideas.

List of Figures
    Fig. 1 – “Nebamun hunting in the marshes”, fragment from tomb of Nebamun,Thebes, Egypt. circa 1350 B.C. Source: https://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/n/nebamun_hunting_in_the_marshes.aspx

    Fig. 2 – “Guernica” by Pablo Picasso.1937. 3.5m x 7.8m. Museo Renia Sofia, Madrid.
    Source: http://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp

    Fig. 3a – “Physiographic Diagram of the Seven Devils Mountains” by Tau Rho Alpha and William A. Austin. 1982. Web 22 Oct 2015. Source: Google Images

    Fig. 3b – “Digital map with manual shading” by Eduard Imhof and Canton Grisons Web 23Oct 2015. Source: http://cartography.oregonstate.edu/TerrainShadingAndColoring.html
    Digitally shaded relief is […] not as successful at portraying terrain as manually produced shaded relief images

    Fig. 5 – Example of a hand drawn medical illustration taken from a textbook on anatomy. Source: “Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics” by Strothotte + Schlectweg p25

    Fig. 6 – “Upper Threading”. Singer Sewing Machine Model 327K- Users Manual p12.
    Source: A. Holland

    Fig.7 – Stipple drawing of an Acheulian flint handaxe in Andover Museum (1963.31).
    Source: http://www.romanglassmakers.co.uk/archill/handaxe2.jpg

    Fig. 8 – Enhancement of a medical image through edge detection and visualization. An
    original medical image is exaggerated using edge enhancement software has
    determined where discontinuities in the surface exist, and these are shown in the NPR
    Source: “Non-photorealistic Computer Graphics” by Strothotte and Schlechtweg,2002. p19



    Fig. 9 – Teleimersive session with a Wii: Showing Building 77, 3D model of GIS layers. 2011.
    Source: Article, 3D Archaeology at Çatalhöyük by Forte et al. on Academia.eu

Bibliography


    Bateman, J. 2000. “Immediate Realities: An Anthropology of Computer Visualisation in Archaeology.” Internet Archaeology 8 .Web 7 Oct 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.11141/ia.8.6

    Gooding, D., C. “Envisioning Explanation: The Art in Science” Chapter1 of Frischer, B. and Dakouri-Hild, A. 2008. Beyond Illustration: 2D and 3D Digital Technologies as Tools for Discovery in Archaeology. BAR Series 1805. Archaeopress.

    Eiteljorg, H. 2000. ”The Compelling Computer Image – A Double-Edged Sword.” Internet Archaeology 8. Web 7 Oct 2015. http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue8/eiteljorg_toc.html

    Forte, M., Dell’Unto, N., Issavi, J., Onsurez, L., Lercari, N. 2012. “3D Archaeology at Çatalhöyük.” Web 11 Oct 2015. https://www.academia.edu/2205617/3D_Archaeology_at_Catalhoyuk

    Frankland, T. 2012. “A CG Artists Impression: Depicting Virtual Reconstructions Using Non-photorealistic Rendering Techniques.” Chapter 2 in Thinking beyond the Tool Archaeological computing and the interpretive process, Chrysanthi, A., Murrieta Flores, P., Papadopoulos, C. (eds) 2012 BAR International Series 2344.

    Gooch, A., A. 2010. “Towards mapping the field of non-photorealistic rendering.” In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR ’10). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 159-164. DOI=http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1809939.1809958

    Gooch, B and Gooch, A. A. “Non-Photorealistic Rendering.” AK-Peters, 2001. Web 21 Oct. 2015
    some pages of intro of book on: http://www.amazon.com/Non-Photorealistic-Rendering-Bruce-Gooch/dp/1568811330

    Kennelly, P.,J and Kimerling, A.,J. 2006.“Non-Photorealistic Rendering and Terrain Representation”. Web 20 Oct. 2015 http://www.cartographicperspectives.org/index.php/journal/article/viewFile/cp54-kennelly-kimerling/405

    Molyneaux, B.L. (ed.) 1997 ”The Cultural Life of Images: Visual Representation in Archaeology.” London and New York: Routledge. Web 10 Oct. 2015

    Rahaman, H. and Tan, B-K. 2010” Interpreting Digital Heritage Considering the End-user’s Perspective.” Web 8 Oct 2015

    Rahaman, H., Das, R. and Zahir, S. 2012. “Virtual Heritage: Exploring Photorealism.” Web 8 Oct 2015. Web 11 Oct 2015

    Strothotte, T. and Schlechtweg, S. 2002. “Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics: Modeling, Rendering, and Animation.” Elsevier, Morgan-Kaufmann series in Computer Graphics. 01 Jan 2002. Web 21 Oct. 2015.


photorealism | blog post 1

1. Introduction:

From the early 1960’s to the present day, the evolution of the computer generated image (CGI) has progressed from the earliest line drawing computers (Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad (Fig. 1)(Wikipedia) to the hyper real computer game. Since then advancements in vector graphics and computer algorithms (Cartesian co-ordinates, Bezier curves, shading, ray tracing, texture mapping and light source modelling) brought computer image making to the present day where a computer generated image could momentarily be mistaken for the real thing (fig. 2 and 10).

Fig. 1 Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad aka. Robot Draftsman,1963. Source: Wikipedia

Fig. 1 Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad aka. Robot Draftsman,1963. Source: Wikipedia

Fig. 2 - “Forest Path” by Alex Alvarez, 2012. Source: 3DTotal.com

Fig. 2 – “Forest Path” by Alex Alvarez, 2012. Source: 3DTotal.com

As with most computer related advancements; fields like the military, architecture, engineering and film may have funded and accelerated the speed of these developments. Films and the representation of the world through science fiction have long overtaken science fact and with that the expectations of audiences everywhere for what entertains and looks real. It begs the question; does this standard of realism add anything to any field of knowledge? 3D visualisations (some photorealistic, some not) and the animated fly-through have become standard storytelling devices in historical documentaries.
It could be argued that this is driven more by technological advancement and audience expectation than by specialists in cultural heritage. This blog will look at the history of photorealism followed by an exploration of the debate around the effect of using photorealism in the field of Archaeology.
2. History of Photorealism:
Photorealism has a long history. Before the invention of photography, it was the mark of an accomplished painter to be able to capture the difficult textures of of glass, pewter and lemon accurately in paint (fig. 3). Early painters used the trick of the eye that is achieved by photorealism to create fantastical landscapes and to assemble components or characters that have never occupied the same space but can be photorealistically united on a canvas (fig. 4).
Fig. 3 - A Roemer, an Overturned Pewter Jug, Olives and a Half Peeled Lemon on Pewter Plates by Pieter Claesz. (c.1597 – 1660).Photo Sotheby’s.

Fig. 3 – A Roemer, an Overturned Pewter Jug, Olives and a Half Peeled Lemon on Pewter Plates by Pieter Claesz. (c.1597 – 1660).Photo Sotheby’s.

Fig.4 - Rudolf II painted as Vertumnus, Roman God of the seasons, c. 1590-1 by Giuseppe_Arcimbold. Source: Wikipedia

Fig.4 – Rudolf II painted as Vertumnus, Roman God of the seasons, c. 1590-1 by Giuseppe_Arcimbold. Source: Wikipedia

From circa 1787 to 1890 artists such as Robert Barker and Karl Hagen Becks experimented with the use of large format painted landscape illusions. Barker’s were displayed in purpose built rotunda with a near 360° view described in the first use of the word ‘panorama (fig. 5). Becks created a popular polar panorama, complete with stuffed seals and polar bears against a painted photorealistic backdrop. It was Louis J.M. Daguerre who patented this, now familiar photorealistic tableau, called the ‘diorama’ which is still used for the display of natural history and sometimes as a backdrop for zoo enclosures.(Cipolla-Ficarra et al. p93) (fig. 6)

Fig. 5 - Postcard of Robert Barker’s London Panorama c. 1792. Source: www.janeausten.co.uk

Fig. 5 – Postcard of Robert Barker’s London Panorama c. 1792. Source: www.janeausten.co.uk

Fig. 6 - Diorama with Alaskan Brown Bears. The American Museum of Natural History. New York

Fig. 6 – Diorama with Alaskan Brown Bears. The American Museum of Natural History. New York Source: Google Images.

3. Archaeology and Interpretative Illustrations:
The field of archaeology has used ’the artists impression’ and non-photorealistic visuals as tools since the 1880’s. The use of illustration in this context has been strictly interpretative (Bateman 1). Areas of interest could be highlighted whilst areas of uncertainty could remain ambiguous. Strothotte et al. (qtd. in Frankland 27) compare it to the ‘roughs’ or sketches made by architects as part of their visual thinking process(313). Roughs are a way of allowing an architect to make up their mind, to work through the possibilities without committing to only one. (Ibid.) this non-realistic visualisation process has served archaeologists as well. It seems that both archaeologists and the public find that ‘meaningfully abstracted’ visuals prompt greater audience engagement (Frankland 26). Frankland surveyed a mixed group of cultural heritage specialists and non-specialists. His aim was to measure their preference and types of engagement with photorealistic and non-photorealistic visualisations. When the surveyed group had to choose a visual they thought suitable for display in a visitor centre, the majority of the group chose the photorealistic option for this purpose. It seems that even when there was a clear reluctance on the part of the cultural heritage specialists amongst the survey group about the ‘truth’ of these particular photorealistic renderings (for example, how could archaeologists have any evidence for how the roof of a crannog would be structured?) when given a choice about which they preferred, the majority chose photorealistic option (Ibid.). Non-photorealism will be discussed in more detail in Blog Post 2(BP2).
3. Computer generated Images:
Computer visualisations can aim for a hyper level of realism but unlike reality, visualisations have no ‘real world’ constraints.
‘The trend for images to represent ‘entire’ interpretations, to be pictorial compressions of time, ensuring that all activities and artefacts are represented, has given the entire genre a vulnerability to attack.’ (Bateman 1).
Roussou, Drettakis and Bateman discuss how the software for these visualisations is often technically designed for other fields (1 ;4). Their purpose is to create photorealistic, accurate and unambiguous visuals, coming as they do from backgrounds where there is a need for quantifiable accuracy such as engineering, architecture and cartography. Huggett and Harley (85; qtd. in Bateman 4) describe ‘this coteries of technophiles’ with ‘fetishes’ for accuracy and technology as features of those in charge of these tools. Huggett, Harty and Emele suggest further that the fetish for accuracy is fed by a sort of validation that comes from the assumption that accuracy can be mistakenly equated with authority (85; qtd. in Bateman 300; qtd. in Eiteljorg 3)
‘If anything, the perception of the magical mysticism of information and communication technologies is increasing as the number of layers of abstraction between human user and machine multiply’(Huggett 85).
In support to these arguments Buczynska-Garewicz adds, in relation to the 3D visualisations of ‘Cerveteri Reborn, ‘There is no ground to believe that the new construction is the real thing, while it is only ‘as if’ real. So, there is a dangerous illusion created by 3D visualisation’ (paragraph 7). Eiteljorg warns against being misinformed by ‘A good image’ which he describes as ‘truly a double edged sword’(4). All of these arguments urge caution on the part of the viewer/interpreter as better illustration is not necessarily a better argument (Ibid.).
4. The problem with ‘Empty Space’:
The technical lineage of the software used for archaeological visualisations may explain a lot about why they can look like illustrations of ‘socially empty space’ for the lack of people represented (Fig.7+8)(Bateman 4). ‘This impression of absence is also a distinct characteristic of the media of delivery of these visualisations’ (Ibid.). This could be an instance that reinforces Walter Benjamin’s assertion about the loss of ‘aura’, or in this case a true sense of time and place, due to mechanical nature of the method of production. (Benjamin 218-9; Bateman 4) Remedying this absence; whilst keeping the image historically accurate, and site specific, brings up new issues. Introducing suitably dressed and occupied human forms into a 3d visualisation, adds to the list of what needs to be historically verified. Apart from slowing down rendering speeds, adding a lot of modelling and putting the visual in danger of looking fictional, it diverts efforts away from focussing on the archaeological site.
Fig.7 - Image of the entrance to the Athenian Acropolis restored portions lightened and outlined in white. Source: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue8/eiteljorg/eit5.html

Fig.7 – Image of the entrance to the Athenian Acropolis restored portions lightened and outlined in white. Source: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue8/eiteljorg/eit5.html

Fig. 8 - Digital Karnak Project 2006-2008. Re: 'Empty spaces'.Source: http://3dvisa.cch.kcl.ac.uk/project105_fig3.png

Fig. 8 – Digital Karnak Project 2006-2008.
Illustration of ‘Empty spaces’.Source: http://3dvisa.cch.kcl.ac.uk/project105_fig3.png


5. The London Charter(Fig. 9):
‘We must not allow ourselves to use the technology to do half the job if doing so misleads’ (Eiteljorg 6). This quote was written in 2000, and as with most of the authors cited in this post, it pre-dates the writing of the London Charter in 2006. It gives a taste for the concerns expressed at this time about the lack of transparency and ’the epistemological problems posed by hyperrealism,'(Denard). Furthermore it shows the background against which a set of principles was deemed necessary. Photorealistic CGI was proving itself very popular, and due to the powerful inertia (Molyneaux 7)of this style of image, was considered a potential mask for the presentation of erroneous cultural heritage work.
‘That is why, at the heart of The London Charter is the principle that heritage visualizations: ‘should accurately convey to users the status of the knowledge that they represent, such as distinctions between evidence and hypothesis, and between different levels of probability.’’(Denard.)
The London Charter is composed of a set of paradata guidelines for heritage visualisation. Since its launch in 2006 the London Charter has been renamed and is now presenting itself as version 2.1. A separate Charter for Virtual Archaeology, the Seville Charter, is at a ‘preliminary draft stage’ which could indicate that changes to the original Charter is seen as necessary for this field.(Ibid.)
Fig. 9 - London Charter: Homepage. 15 October 2015 Source: http://www.londoncharter.org/introduction.html

Fig. 9 – London Charter: Homepage, 2015
Source: http://www.londoncharter.org/introduction.html

Fig. 10 - “Coffee Table” by Dusan Kovic 2015. Source: http://www.3dtotal.com

Fig. 10 – “Coffee Table” by Dusan Kovic 2015.
An example of hyper real illustration.
Source: http://www.3dtotal.com

6. Conclusion:
This post has taken a look at the history of illustration, photorealism and CGI and their application in the field of archaeology. Debates surrounding the photorealistic products of CGI have prompted the formulation of the London and Seville Charters as guiding frameworks. Due to the time consuming nature of the production of each photorealistic visual, it seems to be suited to a place of public engagement such as a visitor centre, where one authoritative image is preferable, as the results from Frankland’s survey group could suggest (33). Equally, evidence based, photorealistic, non-photorealistic and theoretical ‘roughs’ seem to satisfy the requirement for ‘intellectual transparency’ and methodological rigor amongst the archaeological community(Denard). Whether photorealism is the most appropriate vehicle for the questioning nature of archaeologists remains moot. In my next blog post will explore the power of non-photorealistic illustration as a tool to generate new archaeological knowledge(Terras).
List of Figures
    Fig. 1 – The Sketchpad by Ivan Sutherland, 1963. Source: Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sketchpad

    Fig. 2 – “Forest Path” by Alex Alvarez in Watterson, Alice. 2012.“Hyper-Realism, Photo-Realism and Learning to Be Realistic.” Digital Dirt Virtual Pasts. 17 Aug. 2012. Web 14 October 2015.
    Source: https://digitaldirtvirtualpasts.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/alexalvarez.jpg

    Fig. 3 – A Roemer, an Overturned Pewter Jug, Olives and a Half Peeled Lemon on Pewter Plates by Pieter Claesz. (Berchem 1597/8 – 1660/1 Haarlem), Photo Sotheby’s. web 15 Oct 2015. Source:https://alaintruong2014.wordpress.com/tag/pieter-claesz/

    Fig.4 – Vertumnus, a portrait depicting Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor painted as Vertumnus, the Roman God of the seasons, c. 1590-1. by Giuseppe_Arcimboldo Skokloster Castle, Sweden. web 14 Oct 2015. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Arcimboldo

    Fig. 5 – Postcard of Robert Barker’s London Panorama, exhibited circa 1792. web 13 Oct 2015. Source:http://www.janeausten.co.uk/the-barker-family-panorama-painters/

    Fig. 6 – Diorama with Alaskan Brown Bears. Bernard Family Hall of North American Mammals. The American Museum of Natural History. New York, U.S.A. web 14 Oct 2015.
    Source: http://vampersanda.blogspot.ie/2014/10/nyc-american-museum-of-natural-history.html

    Fig.7 – Image of the entrance to the Athenian Acropolis restored portions lightened and outlined in white, after repairs in the middle of the fifth century BC (Fig 8c page 5). Source: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue8/eiteljorg/eit5.html

    Fig. 8 – Digital Karnak Project 2006-2008: A. Visualisation of the possible location of the sphinx statues at the temple’s western gateway during the tenure of the ‘High Priest of Amun’ Pinedjem (21st Dynasty). B. Interior of the visualisation of the ‘red chapel’ of Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty). © UCLA.
    Source: http://3dvisa.cch.kcl.ac.uk/project105_fig3.png

    Fig. 9 – London Charter: Homepage. 15 October 2015
    Source: http://www.londoncharter.org/introduction.html

    Fig. 10 – “Coffee Table” by Dusan Kovic.2015.“ I tried to make it as realistic as possible. Modeled in Maya, render in Arnold, composited in Photoshop”(Kovic).
    Source: http://www.3dtotal.com/index_gallery_detailed2.php?id=6644&cat=scenes#.ViE1LexVhHw

Bibliography:
    Bateman, J. 2000. “Immediate Realities: An Anthropology of Computer Visualisation in Archaeology.” Internet Archaeology 8 .Web 7 Oct 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.11141/ia.8.6

    Denard, H. 2012. A New Introduction to the London Charter. Web 11 Oct 2015 http://www.londoncharter.org/introduction.html

    Benjamin, W. 1936 (1968). “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.“ Illuminations, 217-51. New York: Schocken Books.

    Buczynska-Garewicz, H. 2007. Illusions of Virtual Reality. 3D VisA Bulletin 3. Web 7 Oct 2015.
    http://3dvisa.cch.kcl.ac.uk/paper_buczynska.html

    Cipolla-Ficarra, F., Veltman, K., Chih-Fang, L. , Cipolla-Ficarra, M., Kratsky, A (eds) 2011 Human Computer Interaction, Tourism and Cultural Heritage: Second International Workshop HCITOCH 2011, Córdoba, Argentina, Sept 2011, Revised Selected Papers.

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