After some deliberations with my project colleagues we decided that the best course of action to take in order to collect information regarding Thoor Ballylee/Yeats Tower was to search the online catalogue of the Architectural Archives on Merrion Square, Dublin 2. I did in-fact find a number of useful books, paper clippings
and engravings for Yeats Tower and a lovely model sized replica table that sits in one of the rooms of the tower. After discovering these items I called the Irish Architectural Archive to arrange an appointment for the 14th of March 2017. Gavin, Maria and I met at a cafe beside Pearse Street train station and walked up to Architectural offices in Merrion Square for our 11:00 am appointment. When we arrived there, we put our coats and bags in the lockers provided in the basement cloakroom and made our way to the reception. I filled out my details on a registration form and received my
reader’s card from the staff member. He then kindly brought out the materials I had requested by phone. The staff member brought out a periodical called Thoughts on Thoor Ballylee by Joseph M. Hassett (1986); a pamphlet which had illustrations and pen and ink sketch plans of Thoor Ballylee by Liam Miller & Mary Hanley (1977) and a book called the W.B. Yeats’ Banqueting Table by Oliver Hennessy (1993). In addition to the reading and illustrative material, the archive also had a replica scale model of a table that adorns one of the tower’s rooms. We searched through all the material and photographed all the relevant illustrations that might help us with scale and texture of the tower.
Gavin suggested that we ask the staff member on duty about the possibility of the archive having architectural plans from a refurbishment of the Tower in 1963 by the architect Dermot O’Toole.
This was a long-shot, but we needed more information on the Tower, if we were to be successful in our project. The staff member checked for us and to our astonishment, the archive did have the plans. We immediately set up our camera and unrolled the plans on the table. We took turns taking the photos of all the refurbishment plans and uploaded the RAW images to our laptop to use at at a later date. Then we rolled the plans back up and gathered all our reading material together and returned them to the staff member at the reception and left the archive.
After some preliminary meetings with my project colleagues, we decided to take a trip to the National Library of Ireland to conduct a fact finding exercise on Thoor Ballylee or Yeats Tower as it is better known. Gavin, Maria and I met at a really nice coffee house called Java Republic at 10:30 am where we met Neale Rooney who is a departmental representative from Maynooth University. Neale accompanied us to library in order to familiarise and help us find the material we were looking for.
At 11:00 am we arrived at the National Library of Ireland on Kildare Street, Dublin 2, and proceeded to register and get our photographic identifications.
When we entered the library, we read all the rules and regulations in relation to handling and photographing the materials and signed a form that was required before our reading material was given to us. When the negatives came out to us, a problem arose with permission with some/all the material in relation to copyright. At that point the staff member asked Neale to contact the legal agents for the Yeats estate for permission to photograph the negatives. The negatives themselves were not really sufficient for making a 3-D model of the tower so we decided to go to the Yeats exhibition which was in another part of the building to see if we could find anything in there.
The exhibition was very good but again, it lacked anything that we could use in our projects, so we decided to move onto plan B which was the Architectural Archives in Merrion Square, Dublin 2.
3-D Modelling Proposal by Maria Zoumaki, Gavin McAllister & Justin Martin.
Title: Thoor-Ballylee – The home of William Butler Yeats
Case Study: The virtual construction of W.B. Yeats tower and its environs at Thoor-Ballylee Co. Galway.
Why a reconstruction: It is agreed that the above reconstruction of Thoor-Ballylee be done in order to provide a better understanding of the entire site and its environs both inside and outside.
Firstly, it is the centenary of the Yeats family acquiring and residing at Thoor-Ballylee.
Secondly, the tower is regularly photographed from two different angles, so there are sections of the residence that are under-represented in terms of photography. In addition, there is limited photographic documentation available from the inside of the tower; so we have decided to construct the 3-D model of Thoor-Ballylee using a photo-realistic representation of the building in order to capture the essence of the tower that inspired Yeats. While the monument has therefore been almost continually occupied for nearly five hundred years, we will concentrate on the last phase of that occupation which is how the tower looks today.
Reconstruction Context: Museum Context
As a celebratory occasion to mark the one hundred year anniversary, the case study in question could be included in the forthcoming exhibition at the National Museum displaying a virtual tour of the tower. More specifically, the visitors would have the opportunity to navigate themselves around the four rooms and floors of Yeats tower and the landscape environment outside of the tower.
The National Library of Ireland could offer it’s audience a unique experience during the forth-coming exhibition by allowing the visitors to become intimately acquainted with the tower exterior and it’s interior through a realistic viewpoint that will display the many textures and colours of the tower. Through additional multimedia means like Vue, Poser, Mudbox, the overall sense and aesthetic of the tower and its landscape [bridge, attached cottage, original features] could be approached through visualisation, to give one a real sense of what the tower looked like during Yeats’ occupation
In order for the above modelling technique to be achieved, the data that is going to be utilised refers to drawings, photographic data-sets and correspondences relating to Thoor-Ballylee. Specifically, we are going to utilize Yeats’ collection form the National Library of Ireland from the below archive boxes:
MS 30,731: Materials relating to the restoration of tower at Thoor-Ballylee which includes photographs of the tower and as well Coole Park.
MS 30,860: Accounts and letters from architect Scott relating to Thoor-Ballylee and also sketches, plans etc. (32 pp., letters, 5 sketches/plans)
MS 30,881: Photostats of TS list of Thoor-Ballylee, furnishings etc (8 pp.)
in order to enrich our visualization both geometrical and with textural accuracy.
Hanley, Mary (Liam Miller ED.), Thoor Ballylee; home of William Butler Yeats. Edited by Liam Miller from a paper given by Mary Hanley to the Kiltartan Society in 1961. With a foreword by T.R. Henn.
Contributing to #dariahTeach Platform and ‘Intro to DH’ course
The #dariahTeach venture I am currently working on for my Internship is a project that is funded by the Erasmus + Programme of the European Union. This essential project is in the process of
developing an online platform for teaching Digital Humanities through an array of carefully selected educational videos. The current videos have a thematic approach which focuses on the question of ‘What is Digital Humanities?’ and also explores ‘Digital Humanities in Practice’ which examines and explains the theoretical and methodological aspects of DH.
This Practicum will provide me with real-life experience during the second semester. I will participate and contribute to the development of the new platform through research, embedding the current videos onto the new platform and adding metadata to them. Secondly, I will collaborate with another intern on the aspects of interviewing and filming of an expert the digital humanities field. I will also edit this video using video editing software such as Pinnacle Studio, Adobe Premiere. The final part of my Practicum will be a white paper that will reflect the research I intend to do on the best practices on delivering educational videos that explain and clarify any ambiguities that may currently exist among people interested in the field. I hope to make new suggestions with my research that aid in future developments of the structure of the platform and most importantly, the content.
PROGRESS: STAGE ONE
The first stage of my Practicum involved watching all twenty seven videos in the digital humanities series from the AFF archives. Each video recording was fifteen minutes long, and the total video footage added up to six hours and forty five minutes, so I watched the videos over a few days and not one after another. I repeated the process again, but this time I transcribed them and added time-coding to separate the questions from the answers. I did this for two reasons, firstly, I wanted to fully absorb and digest the conversation, and secondly I wanted to use the time-coding in relation to making a short video at a later date using appropriate and relevant footage from the videos in question.
The problems that I encountered during stage one was minor. I wanted the interviewee to repeat the question he/she was being asked at the start of their answer. On occasions, the interviewee did not repeat the question. This would have repercussions during editing, one would have to cut the interviewer’s question from the footage and the video’s context would be lost, which would confuse the audience.
I also looked out for lighting errors, positioning, and good clarity in the responses to the questions. I thought the content of each video was very academic and might pose a problem for those not knowledgeable in the subject matter.
PROGRESS: STAGE TWO
I decided to concentrate on my first deliverable which was due before March 17th 2017. This involved examining and analysing the ten videos that are already online from #dariaTeach channel on YouTube. I created a spreadsheet for all the important metadata needed for each of the ten videos. For example, I included video description, biography, author/s, date & place, keywords, references, methodology, copy-write and creative commons. I then proceeded to watch each video numerous times until I extracted the data I needed for my spreadsheets. In addition, I also gathered data from the institutions that the academics in the videos are affiliated with.
The problems I had in stage two were also minor. The main problem for me was and still is the time-factor involved and the laborious nature of my practicum. I feel that one cannot and should not try to rush such a job, because one can easily make mistakes that can impact on the #dariahTeach project and the reputation and integrity of all involved. So I have deliberately taken my time and put a lot of effort into delivering an error free project that solidifies Maynooth University’s good reputation and standing in academia.
PROGRESS: STAGE THREE
I am currently working on stage three of my internship which involves the transfer of metadata from the spreadsheets I created onto the new #dariahTeach platform. This metadata will be converted to HTML and will be included in the fabric of the new platform, which will soon be accessible online. The main challenge in this task is making sure that all the metadata is correctly presented and error free.
PROGRESS: STAGE FOUR/FIVE/SIX
I have not embarked on these stages yet, so I can only regurgitate what I intend to do. In stage four I will collaborate with another intern and we will select footage from the twenty seven videos in the AFF archive which will focus on a new topic ‘What is Textual Scholarship’. This new video will be four/five minutes in length and will discuss the new topic in detail. This new video will also be added to the new #dariahTeach platform along with its metadata. In stage five I will also collaborate with the same intern in filming, editing a new video with a specially selected topic which I do not know yet. This video will also be added to the platform along with its metadata. The final part, stage six, will be a research white paper which will bring my whole experience together and disseminate the results of my research into the best practices and a critical evaluation of some of the practices and decision making aspects of the project. I will also try to suggest new policies for the evolution and success of the new platform.
My name is Justin Martin and I am currently doing an MA in Digital Humanities at Maynooth University for the academic year 2016/17. In the last few years I experienced a small amount of digitisation through the research I had done on my undergraduate thesis Augustan Coinage: Imagery & Symbolism. It was during this period that I frequented and researched many numismatic databases that specifically dealt with coins from antiquity. These databases or digital platforms were designed to showcase numismatic images along with their historical biographies and physical characteristics.
After finishing my (TSM) Bachelor’s Degree in Ancient History/Archaeology & Jewish/Islamic Civilisation in 2016, I had my heart set on doing a Master’s Degree in conservation/preservation in the cultural heritage sector. This is when I became aware of the MA in Digital Humanities that Maynooth University were advertising. I did not think twice about applying for this exciting and relevant course, as it ticked all my areas of interest.
This MA is both theoretical and practical in equal measures. The course has helped me in areas such as blog construction using WordPress, Java programming, XML, HTML, which are all transferable skills one can use in IT jobs at home or abroad. In addition to these computer skills, I also learned how to capture objects using different methods such as 3D scanning and photogrammetry using a high spec DSLR camera. Using software programmes, one can learn how to produce a high quality 3D model and upload them onto reputable platforms such as Sketchfab which allow one to publish, share & discover 3D projects online and in Visual Reality. I also discovered RTI (Reflectance Transformation Imaging) this is a computational photographic method that captures a subject’s surface shape. This method works well with ancient coinage, and provides intricate details on the coin that would be otherwise invisible to the naked eye. The other technology that really interested me was the hyper-spectral imaging; this involves the scanning of an object using multiple wavelengths that are outside the parameters of the human eye. This method is used to detect art and antiquity fraud and is an area that I am passionate about.
The MA in Digital Humanities is a degree that can provide one with the skills and theoretical knowledge to avail of multiple job opportunities across many disciplines which I have outlined. Digital Humanities is a very exciting subject that traverses the boundaries of other deep rooted disciplines such as archaeology and computer science.
I recently attended the VHN (Visual Heritage Network) conference, which was held in Cork in November 2016. I came away from this conference in Cork feeling really excited for the future of Digital Humanities and even more so, for my own future in this new and exciting field. You can find out more information about some of the new exciting presentations given by experts at the VHN conference in Cork by clicking on my(blog-post).
This year’s Virtual Heritage Network (VHN) conference in Cork did not disappoint me in any shape or form. This was my first time attending a VHN conference and it was a really enjoyable experience. The aim of this conference is a sharing of ideas and the exploration of interactive visualisation such as curation and data-management at home and abroad. The video below, which was presented by Geert Kessels & Pim van Bree (Lab1100) at the VHN conference is an example of an interactive visual data-set courtesy of Nodegoat. Nodegoat is a web-based data management, network analysis and visualisation environment, that allows one to instantly analyse and visualise datasets.
There were many interesting presentations which had themes such as 3D Modelling in experimental archaeology, interactive visual data-sets, and crowd-sourcing projects. The presentation that I particularly liked was project Mosul/or Rekrei which was started by Matthew Vincent & Chance Coughenour. The Rekrei project is an ideal platform for crowdsourcing the digital recreation
of artefacts, monuments and museums which have been damaged by human agency such as terrorism and natural disasters. These are then used to create 3D models/representations of objects/buildings to help preserve our shared cultural heritage throughout conflict and unstable regions. This project shares similarities with other projects such as the NewPalmyra project which also collects data, analyses it and shares the data in the public domain, with the sole aim of preserving heritage sites.
The next presentation that I really enjoyed was The Historic Graves Project, which was presented by John Tierney who isa field archaeologist with Eachtra Archaeological Projects. This particular project is a community based heritage project which digitally records and publishes historic graveyard surveys and stories. In a period of 6 years, they have catalogued and recorded eight hundred graves using 360˚ cameras that record the height and width giving 2D, and with an additional geo-tag location, GPS gives the 3rd dimension. The two most important tools used in the recording process are masking tape and a marker, which are used to number and record the headstones. According to Mr Tierney, the masking tape can withstand the elements, and remain on the headstone for up to a year. There is little doubt that this is a very low cost solution to the major problem of inadequate funding.
The most fundamental part of the project is reading and transcribing the gravestones, this process is done with a lenser p7 torch , which is pointed at the side to cast a shadow, thus making the reading process easier. This obliquelighting technique is similar to RTI (reflectance transformation imaging), it is usually used to show detail by creating shadows on the surface of an item.
The conference was really informative and left me with a lot of food for thought. Every project was really interesting and left a deep impression on me in terms of the technological benefits that can be gained from using these technologies. I look forward with huge anticipation to next year’s VHN Conference.
We live in times when images, and especially digital images, are ubiquitous. Most of us share photographs daily on social media platforms like Flickr, Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram, etc. There are other platforms in existence, for example Google’s “Open Gallery” (which is part of the Google Cultural Institute platform) that also make it possible for anybody to upload images, videos and arrange exhibitions, i.e. to become a curator of an online exhibition. The pervasiveness of image sharing platforms and the facilitated access to these platforms for lay-people can leave us with the illusion that we are all curators and that the role of professional curators will soon become obsolete. I tend to disagree with this view and believe that although technology has developed rapidly in recent years, not everybody can be considered a curator per se.
It is also important to point out that the development of technologies, such as computational image analysis, poses the question of whether or not curation can be done without the participation of a human agent. Computational image analysis is a very powerful tool as it saves time and effort for the image curator. The internet has become flooded with billions of images and sorting through them, categorising them and organising them has become a colossal task. With the help of technology, sifting through images has become easier and faster.
This does not mean that computational image analysis can substitute the judgment made by a curator. I agree with Steve Rosenbaum who states that “Computers can’t distinguish
between data and ideas or between human intellect and aggregated text and links”. This is the main reason why I am of the view that computational image analysis cannot replace the input of human curators. Computers do not feel or think as humans (or at least not yet!). Exhibitions are made with the purpose of reaching certain audiences, with the intention of broadcasting particular ideas and/or evoke certain memories or feelings. This is where the role of the curators becomes immensely important. Although computers can help in the curation of images, the organisation of an exhibition itself, in relation to the selection of images cannot be made by a computer. Curators are the experts who evaluate the images and identify what images would fit with the specific theme. Selecting the images, their arrangement and presentation, are not actions that can be done solely by machines. Every exhibition aims to achieve certain emotive responses within the audience, and that is where computational analysis fails. The curator, through his experience, both personal and social, knows how the human psyche works. Sifting through the avalanche of images can be done faster and easier with the help of computational tools but choosing the most appropriate images and contextualising them can be achieved solely by a human agent.
When talking about computational image analysis and human curatorship, I feel that there is no need to juxtapose them. There are many benefits to computational image analysis but I remain of the view that its role is ancillary to the role of the human curator. On the other hand, modern curators need to embrace new technologies in order to deliver the best possible experience for their audiences.
Digital archaeology is the study of our archaeological past using the latest digital technologies such as photogrammetry, laser-scanning, augmented & virtual reality systems, 3D modelling and printing. These new modes of technology prompt archaeologists to re-evaluate the ways in which they analyse, interpret and disseminate their findings in relation to archaeology. But even though digital technology is evolving at a fast rate, there are still those who reject modernity and are slow to move away from traditional methods of archaeology.
This is due to various reasons such as problems with intellectual property and a lack of standardisation across all the fields and sub-fields of archaeology. Costopoulos states that the “tendency to make approaches and tools into objects of study” and emphasises “the implications in other fields of the use of new digital tools” (Costopoulos, 2). I do agree with the assertion that there are problems with the merging of traditional and digital archaeology such as standardisation, but I do feel that traditionalists will have to embrace digital or face getting left behind altogether. I share Huggett’s opinion which outlines the fact that “unless doing digital archaeology includes the conversations surrounding doing archaeology digitally it will only be partial archaeology” (Huggett, 4).
The scope of archaeology is extremely broad and incorporates many other sub-disciplines of archaeology such as space, underwater, environmental, and osteo, to name a few. However, although they are different fields of archaeology, they are similar in theory and methodology. The theoretical framework of traditional archaeology or cultural historical archaeology as it is known involves the removal of an artefact from its context and the subsequent analysis of that data. These artefacts are then analysed and catalogued and placed in the archaeological record. According to Renfrew and Bahn, “[t]raditional approaches tended to regard the objective of archaeology mainly as reconstruction: piecing together the jigsaw” (Renfrew and Bahn, 17). In this definition, the term “reconstruction” is used in its traditional meaning, but it is important to point out that this term is extremely problematic in conventional archaeology as well as virtual/digital archaeology. One of the problems associated with digital archaeology is that visualisations are considered to be “reconstructions” (Clark, 63). This term is widely used in virtual/digital archaeology and there are numerous examples such as the Digital Reconstruction of the Northwest Palace, Nimrud, Assyria on YouTube that emphasises the terms use. Clark quotes the archaeologist Walter W. Taylor who criticised the use of the term reconstruction. Clark agrees with Taylor’s opinion and adds that, especially within the context of digital archaeology, it is fallacious to talk about “reconstruction”. He suggests that the term which should be used instead of reconstruction to identify both the process and the product is “model” (Clark, 67). I personally agree with Taylor and Clark that the word “reconstruction” cannot and should not be used both in traditional and virtual/digital archaeology as they imply, as Taylor emphasised, “rebuilding to exact former specifications”. It is impossible to have the exact measurements of an object or building. Furthermore, it would be even more erroneous to use this term in virtual/digital archaeology which recreates an artefact or building in an intangible medium.
I think that no matter how one feels about digital archaeology, there is no doubt in my mind that it is here to stay. The potential and benefits of using digital tools and methods far outweighs any negative criticism traditionalists might have. I feel that archaeology is interpretative, no matter whether we use traditional and/or digital methods and tools.
In the age of social media obsession, it is becoming increasingly difficult for us to keep control over the images and related personal information being shared on social media and the world wide web in general. Privacy is becoming an increasingly contentious issue among the majority of social media users. As technologies are developing to facilitate the upload and sharing of images, the personal information in the public domain which we or other people, inadvertently or not, post is increasing. I will examine the privacy concerns on two levels – on a more personalised level, in the area of “small data” (data, in particular images, posted by an individual user) and within the context of “Big Data” (the data uploaded by other users).
The term “privacy” varies from person to person. Not everybody has the same notion of “privacy”. While software engineers view it in binary terms, most people have ambiguous and changing views of “privacy” (Highfiled, 7). It is interesting to note that a study carried out by Yahoo! Research Berkeley group, which examined Flickr users’ privacy settings and concerns, concluded that only 2% of the surveyed photos had the location information suppressed. This probably indicates that overall most people are not that concerned with their location’s disclosure. However, we cannot take this at face value as the default option on Flickr at the time of research was for the location to be included (Ahern et al, 361). Even if we take into consideration this fact, I find the percentage of photos revealing (inadvertently or not) location somewhat surprising. The location data attached to uploaded images reveals details of a person’s daily life which in turn can lead to concerns as to that person’s security or the physical security of their families and property. This concern prevents me personally from uploading photos of my child on social platforms. I also choose not to upload photos while on holidays as this could give away the fact that my home is vacant.
Furthermore, I believe that when we upload photos on social platforms it is important that we take into account that these photos affect our social image. For example, some employers perform background checks on Facebook and other social media when hiring new employees. Uploading a picture which is compromising in any way could mean loss of a job or other social opportunities. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that even if we control what images we post, there is the bigger problem – we do not have much control over what images other people are uploading of us. This concern leads us to the issue of privacy in the context of “Big Data”.
“Big Data” is the name given to large data-sets which are often collected and researched by companies and governments with the purpose of market research, targeted advertisement and national security (Smith). The amount of uploaded data is increasing on a daily basis at an ever-growing speed. A quick perusal of Instagram’s Stats page shows that more than 95 million photos/videos are uploaded per day on that platform alone. The existence of myriad social media platforms means that very often images of us can be uploaded by other users without us being even aware, especially if we are not users of that particular platform. Some social media platforms allow for tagging and inform the tagged person that an image of him has been uploaded but in a lot of cases the photos are not tagged. The fact that modern devices are capable of embedding geo-data and other metadata increases the threat to a person’s privacy, especially in cases of non-linked tagging of photos when the person is not made aware of the uploading of this image (Smith).
Overall, I feel that in our age of social media obsession, we, the social media users, remain over-exposed. Despite all attempts to defend our privacy, it is near impossible to prevent other people from uploading images and data about us. I remain of the view that we need to get accustomed to the idea of our diminished privacy, especially in cases where we voluntarily choose to make our photos available online. This seems to be the price we have to pay for the benefits of using social media platforms.
In the Digital Age, the role of the curators is changing dramatically. Curating an image exhibition is a complex task which needs to take into consideration numerous issues, more particularly access and preservation, as well as some legal and ethical issues.
In order to build a collection which is easily accessible and searchable, the curator needs to make a decision on how the images will be organised, and what type of metadata (for example CDWA, VRA Core, Dublin Core) and controlled vocabularies (such as ICONCLASS) will ensure easier accessibility of the collection. More information on the importance of metadata and controlled vocabularies can be found in my blog-post “The Importance of Metadata Standards” which can be viewed here.
Choosing or designing the most suitable information system (or software) which can be used for the retrieval and display of images, and is also vital for ensuring successful access and search. If the collection in question is made available online, then careful consideration should be given to the type of web-publishing platform which will be employed. Whether it will be a specially designed web-based platform, for example Photogrammar, or a readily available one like Omeka, it will be dependent on the specific circumstances of each individual exhibition, the target audience, the purpose of the exhibition, available funding, etc.. Overall, all technical decisions of the curator must be made with the purpose of a simplified and efficient search and access to the images, especially in circumstances where the collections contain numerous and varied images.
Another area of concern in image curating is the standard of the digitisation process itself. As digitisation is expensive, it is necessary to be carried out to the highest standards. The transformation from analogue to digital media has to take into consideration the preservation of the originals and also to ensure that the digital copies are of the best quality possible. A number of image files need to be created in addition to the “master” or archival image. Different digitising approaches and methods should be employed dependent on the type and value of the original objects (Frey 183). In addition, the curator and the other people involved in the project should have digital experience and interdisciplinary knowledge to guarantee that the process of digitisation is carried out to the highest standards (Frey 182).
When curating an image collection another issue is the preservation of the originals, as well as of the digital images themselves. The problem of digital preservation and permanence stems from the lightning speed with which software and hardware become obsolete, and also from the lack of standards for digital preservation (Frey 184). While the originals need to be stored at optimum conditions and not handled unnecessarily, the preservation of the digital data is an active and ongoing process of the digital images being regularly monitored and copied (Frey 183-184).
Other issues that can arise in image curating are legal and ethical matters. It is necessary for the curator to balance the aspirations of public institutions for making their collections publicly accessible and the rights which third parties might have, for example copyright. An interesting illustration of the legal and ethical concerns for curators of image collections is the curious case of Vivian Maier (for more information you can watch the documentary “Finding Vivian Maier” on YouTube). According to the ethics code of the International Council of Museums, museums should not acquire objects without “valid title” and that evidence of the lawful ownership does not constitute valid title. It further prescribes that museum professionals should not support the illicit traffic or market, directly or indirectly (Coffee 6). The case of Vivian Maier poses the question of whether posthumous curation is lawful and/or ethical. The preservation and publication of her work is arguably a morally positive act but making profit out of it without copyright can be considered immoral. The problem is exacerbated by the lack of knowledge of her expressed intent and will, and by the fact that she was an extremely private and reclusive person.
Overall, curating an image collection is a complex and gargantuan task in the Digital Era. The curator needs to address a myriad of technical, legal and ethical questions in order to ensure that the collection is compiled to the highest standards and easily accessible by the end-user.
Frey, Franziska. “Digital Imaging as a Tool in Preservation”, Preprint from the 9th International Congress of IADA, Copenhagen, August 15-21, 1999, pp 182-185, http://iada-home.org/ta99_191.pdf. Accessed on 15 November 2016.