Quantitative History: An Annotated Bibliography

Humanities Computing and later the Digital Humanities may be linked back to 1949 and what might now be referred to as a quantitative data, or quantitative history project. The origin was a project of Father Roberto Busa who in collaboration with IBM sought to ‘make an index verborum of all the words in the works of St Thomas Aquinas and related authors, totalling some 11 million words of medieval Latin’(Hockey).

In the field of history, quantitative data has since taken on many forms such as online census returns, parliamentary papers, digitised archives of manuscripts, primary sources and information databases based on prosopography, ships logs and various other compilations of historic data.

In the following annotated bibliography ten entries relating to quantitative history will be presented which upon examination may illustrate the benefits, challenges, perceptions, visions, debates, and processes evident in regards to the development and use of digital quantitative history.

Bradley, John, and Harold Short. Texts into Databases: The Evolving Field of New-style Prosopography. Literary and Linguistic Computing. (2005) 20 (Suppl): 3-24. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.

In this article John Bradley and Harold Short of King’s College London, discuss three projects which sought to compile and digitise vast amounts of historical materials into online prosopography databases. The article goes into detail in regards to these vast projects, one of which, The Prosopography of the Byzantine World, sought ‘to record in a computerized relational database all surviving information about every individual mentioned in Byzantine sources during the period from 641 to 1261, and every individual mentioned in non-Byzantine sources during the same period who is ‘‘relevant’’ (on a generous interpretation) to Byzantine affairs’. The article provides a valuable insight on the thoughts and processes of those involved in creating a vast quantitative history database, and importantly includes discussion on the development of the end user experience.

Cohen, Daniel J., and Roy Rosenzweig. Digital History: A Guide to Gathering, Preserving, and Presenting the Past on the Web. Web. 25 Nov. 2014.

Cohen and Rosenzweig’s Digital History is, as per the title, a broad guide to gathering, preserving, and presenting history online. While not going into great depth regarding the technical aspects of creating digital history, it provides an easy access point for traditional historians into the theory behind going digital as an historian. In regards to quantitative history, the chapter titled Exploring the History Web: Archival Websites explores the history, development, forms and funding of large online history archives. This chapter, as per much of the book, does not over-reach in discussing the theory or technicalities of quantitative history projects but is valuable in providing a basic understanding of the development and forms of quantitative history.

Graham, Shawn, Ian Milligan, and Scott Weingart. The Historian’s Macroscope: Big Digital History – Working Title. Under contract with Imperial College Press, Open Draft Version. 2013. Web. 23 Nov. 2014.

These three authors are in the interesting process of compiling a book in public view by which an online draft version is readily available to view and comment upon. The purpose of their study is Exploring Big Data through a Historian’s Macroscope. While this work is not yet fully complete, the draft online version contains interesting pieces in regards to the use, benefits and perils of ‘Big Data’ from both the authors and readers of the draft whose comments are available to view online. Chapters are available which discuss The Joys of Abundance and The Limits of Big Data, along with chapters on the practical computational methods in Building the Historian’s Toolkit. This draft version already has a great deal of theoretical and practical information on quantitative digital data and the completed work would seem to have the potential to become a great resource to historians who wish to understand and participate with the tools and resources of quantitative digital data in relation to their field.

Hitchcock, Tim. “Academic History Writing and the Headache of Big Data.” Historyonics. 30 Jan. 2012. Web. 22 Nov. 2014.

In this blog-post Tim Hitchcock grapples with the relationship between academic history writing and quantitative digital history resources. Hitchcock details his involvement in the creation of many websites consisting of big data relating to the field of history. The blog post describes how such sites are, for Hitchcock, ‘fragments of a single coherent research agenda and project’, which seek to create the writing of a new form of history, ‘history from below’. In constructing these projects Hitchcock considers their potential value in providing access to sources for a larger audience and a new breed of historian. Yet the blog also discusses the problem of how as these sites methodologies began to develop they become ‘reasonably technically challenging’. Hitchcock describes how potentially big data tools and resources may in fact create historians from a ‘top down, technocratic elite’, and may result in writing history which is neither humanistic nor very humane. Hitchcock does not dismiss digital tools for quantitative history, but provides an interesting argument for a re-assessment of how we might construct and use these tools in the future.

Piersma, Hinke, and Kees Ribbens. “Digital Historical Research: Context, Concepts and the Need for Reflection.” BMGN – Low Countries Historical Review 128.4 (2013): 78–102. Web. 25 Nov. 2014.

At the beginning of this article the authors point out that the prospect of close collaboration between humanities and computer science was described between 2009 and 2012 as a ‘promising cross-fertilisation’, a ‘great leap forward’, and a ‘revolutionary movement’ in Dutch academic circles. In the course of this article Piersma and Ribbens set out to analyse how these hopes have materialised in reality by examining the results of this ‘promising cross-fertilisation’. After analysing two quantitative history projects, the authors suggest that there is a struggle between the traditional and digital approaches, yet meanwhile quantitative and digital processes have furthered other fields which the humanities compete with in producing results and seeking funding. The article concludes by suggesting a re-emphasis on understanding and willing collaboration between both fields towards what is still perhaps a collaboration in progress.

Prescott, Andrew. “The Deceptions of Data.” Digital Riffs: Extemporisations, Excursions and Explorations in the Digital Humanities. 13 Jan. 2013. Web.  22 Nov. 2014.

In discussing “The Deceptions of Data” Andrew Prescott is keen to highlight the dangers which the reproduction and reliance of data in a new format can have in representing history. In regards to quantitative historical data, Prescott highlights large databases constructed out of ‘hundreds of log books’ which were used to create a digital map of British trade routes from 1750 to 1800. However in closer analysis Prescott shows that this large database was not sufficient to create this ‘complete’ digital map as it did not contain shipping information from large parts of Britain during that period. Prescott suggests that some amongst his peers consider themselves ‘no longer curators or scholars but makers and consumers of data’ and in great haste to convince the traditional humanist of the ‘cool’ digital formats. Prescott would seem to remind digital advocates to maintain their scholarly critical thinking in the face of a confidence in quantitative data that may distort the creation of reliable quantitative digital history.

Reed, Ashley. “Managing an Established Digital Humanities Project: Principles and Practices from the Twentieth Year of the William Blake Archive.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 8.1 (2014). Web. 23 Nov. 2014.

The William Blake Archive may be described as an artistic archive before an historical archive yet this article is interesting in regards to quantitative digital history as it discusses the processes and challenges of a quantitative humanities archive which experiences continued growth and expansion of the data within its project. Much like the challenges faced by many historical archives which may regularly uncover new sources and must decide how and if they should be presented, this article on the William Blake Archive discusses these very questions in relation to the maintenance and growth of a quantitative humanities archive.

Zaagsma, Gerben. “On Digital History”. BMGN – Low Countries Historical Review, vol. 128, no. 4 (2013), pp 3-29. Web. 24 Nov. 2014.

In this article it is from pages 23-27, which encompass chapters headed Historical Practice 2.0, that Zaagsma addresses issues regarding the use of quantitative history. The author looks firstly at digitisation and the archive, discussing the progression and forms of digital archive that come to create ‘big data’. Secondly in digital historical analysis Zaagsma acknowledges the fears of traditionalist humanists towards the use of computational methods in a humanist field, and also that quantitative data analysis, ‘is far from objective or neutral’, as suggested by Rieder and Röhle. However while acknowledging these issues, Zaagsma’s own argument would suggest the need for a greater integration of the ‘historian’s interpretive and hermeneutic work’, in engagement with quantitative historical data and analysis, adding ‘the challenge is to apply our critical faculties to digital resources’.

“Interchange: The Promise of Digital History”. Journal of American History, vol. 95, no. 2 (Sept. 2008). Web. 23 Nov. 2014.

This article is an edited version of an online discussion which took place over several months in 2008. While the discussion was broad in that the topic was the promise of digital history as a whole, it is interesting to read the thoughts of these prominent contributors to the field of digital humanities and digital history, and how quantitative history was perceived in this broad discussion. Michael Frisch comments that quantitative history ‘has won, and many historians routinely and effectively deal with quantitative data when they want to or need to in a fluid and responsive inquiry-driven way’. Dan Cohen later adding that the full potential of digital history will be realised by ensuring ‘that digital history is not simply an echo of quantitative history’. Through such comments regarding quantitative history in the broader discussion this is an interesting article in understanding the academic perception of quantitative history.

London Lives 1690 to 1800 ~ Crime, Poverty and Social Policy in the Metropolis Web. 25 Nov. 2014.

As an interesting addition to this bibliography, the London Lives website, which is an excellent example of a digital quantitative history project, provides a great deal of information, not just on how quantitative history can be presented as a valuable resource for historians but also how one is developed and constructed. One section in particular, titled About this Project, provides a wealth of information about a digital quantitative history project’s rationale, funding and technical methods, along with hyperlinks to connected sister sites and to web pages for individuals, sources and bodies involved deeper in the construction of a quantitative history resource.

Cited in Introduction

Hockey, Susan. “The History of Humanities Computing.” A Companion to Digital Humanities. Ed. Susan Schreibman et al. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

Letters Of 1916: The forgotten sources

old letter

The course of Irish history has, like nations all across the world, experienced events which can be identified as pivotal moments for that nation’s story and identity. These events are in many cases well documented by monks, scribes, diplomats and government officials in the retinue of the pivotal figures in society who wish to record their personal or official establishment version of the event for posterity. These official records of history, whilst extremely valuable, should therefore always be read with the potential for bias at the fore, the well-known phrase ‘history is written by the victor’, springs to mind in these instances.

In time professional historians became more prevalent but even their histories are susceptible to bias, influence and motive which can be challenged by their peers. How would Ireland’s perception in popular history as an ‘Island of saints and scholars’ read if the Scottish saint-stealer Thomas Dempster’s version of history had not been challenged and rebuked by the Irish historian James Ware in the 1600s (Empey).

What can be lacking in the official records which are recorded from the top down, and even many well respected histories of momentous events, is the personal story of the common man, the everyday lives which carried on whilst all around them great periods and events of historic change were taking place. Whenever we consider a great event in history, it must be remembered that the majority of people carried on their daily routines whether or not they were directly involved in the event. The official histories which document and discuss diplomatic actions, government policies, troop movements, lockouts, and pivotal historic figures comprise the bulk of many histories and chapter headings, yet the common man was arguably more affected by historic events than many of those who were highly involved.

What the Letters 1916 Project aims to do is to rectify that anomaly of the forgotten people, who in most cases were not significant figures of the period but fought, died, survived or simply lived through the period around the Easter Rising of 1916. It is the aim, according to Susan Schreibman of the Letters of 1916 Project, ‘to “unforget” those who have been forgotten by bringing their stories into a public discourse.‘ (Schreibman).

At the time of writing this blog, over 1600 letters have been collected by Letters 1916 which are separated into sixteen categories. While this may seem at first glance an overly broad number of categories, it is in the category titles themselves that the scope and value of the project to examining the many facets of life during this eventful period becomes apparent. Not only are the expected, but necessary and equally valuable, topics available such as Politics, World War I, Easter Rising and The Irish Question, but categorised also are letters on Art and Literature, Children, Country Life and Love Letters.

The Letters of 1916 home page states that ‘Through these letters we are bringing to life the written words, the last words, the unspoken words, and the forgotten words’, and it would seem it is also bringing the everyday words. What many of the letters bring to life is not only opinions and matters directly involving the Rising and its main protagonist, of which there are many, but how people lived their lives before and after, and that in some instances the Rising may have had very little effect on daily life.

One such example of how life carried on is demonstrated in the correspondence between Susan Fitzgerald of Stradbally in Queens County (now County Laois) and Michael Gorman who was attending Albert College in Glasnevin, Dublin at the time of the Rising. The letters, which dated throughout 1916, are essentially quite unremarkable letters from a seemingly young girl to her suitor. Yet they show the innocent life that a young girl from what would seem a prosperous middle class Irish family lived, and how her language, lifestyle and interests were in fact very much akin to the popular perception of this class during the period, evident in drama such as ‘Downton Abbey’. In a letter dated 23rd of May 1916, the first since the Rising occurred just a month earlier, and just eleven days after the last execution of rebel leaders, there is no evidence of caution or concern for Susan’s suitor in Dublin, her own position or her family, for whom life including trips to the recently ravaged city of Dublin continue. She begins:

My dearest Mickie

I have been threatening to write to you all last week and I made several attempts on yesterday but didnt succeed.  Mother & Fannie went to Dublin for the day. I was asked to keep an eye on the kids so I had a very busy time trying to keep them out of mischief. (Fitzgerald, 23 May 1916)

The letter continues in this light-hearted vein whereby discussion includes exams, photography, weather, holidays, friends, hobbies and clothes, but no mention of this recent event which is considered a pivotal event in Irish history. It is not that I would suggest that this is a nonchalant middle class girl and her family unconcerned by the recent turbulent national event however. What this letter can in fact portray is that life in the aftermath of the Rising for many continued as it had before, life then as now continues for many as normal throughout great periods of upheaval. In the midst of the official histories which chronicle the high level political aspects of the time, letters such as that by Susan Fitzgerald can show that life went on, Dublin was still vibrant, people continued to conduct business and pleasure even within Dublin City in the immediate aftermath of 1916.


Empey, Mark. ‘‘Value-free’ history?: the scholarly network of Sir James Ware’ in History Ireland. vol. XX, issue 2, (March/April 2012). Web. Accessed 14 November 2014. http://www.historyireland.com/early-modern-history-1500-1700/value-free-history-the-scholarly-network-of-sir-james-ware/

Fitzgerald, Susan. Letter from Susan Fitzgerald to Michael Gorman. 23 May 1916. Web. Accessed 14 November 2014. http://dh.tcd.ie/letters1916/diyhistory/items/show/489

Letters of 1916: Creating History. Web. Accessed 14 November 2014. http://dh.tcd.ie/letters1916/

Schreibman, Sausan. “Public invited to co-create 1916 letters project.” Irish Times. The Irish Times 4 August 2014. Web. Accessed 14 November 2014. http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/heritage/public-invited-to-co-create-1916-letters-project-1.1887075?page=1